1

我輩はノイクレザント卿騎士である。
この惑星を滅ぼさんと企む悪の魔法使いの手より姫を守りし
世界を滅亡から救うためはせ参じた公貴の力を貸して欲しい

The bold part is the one I don't really understand, the rest is included for context. What function is "と" serving here?

3

This と itself is a plain old quotative particle. The part before this と is the content of the evil wizard's 企み.

「この惑星を滅ぼさん」と企む悪の魔法使いの手より姫を守りし...
... (who) protected Princess from the clutches of the evil wizard who attempts to destroy this planet

In case you've missed it, this 滅ぼさん is an archaic version of 滅ぼそう, or "I will destroy."

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