my question is , what does 超え in 人の理を超えその身を保ち生き永らえながら…その全てを搾取支配人を弄ぶことに費やして…何を為そうとした' mean ?

Is it a form of 越える? If yes, what form is it (you know, like ~て~た~しょう... etc)? I haven't stumbled across an ending like that yet.

Would appreciate your help :)


1 Answer 1


What form is it?

超え is a form of the ichidan/vowel-stem verb 超える ("to go beyond", "to exceed", "to transcend"). This form is variously called stem, verb-stem, masu-stem, pre-masu form, i-form, continuative from, conjunctive form, combining form or 連用形, depending on the textbook you're using. This form can join two clauses like te-form, and it's generally more literary and stiff.


So 人の理【ことわり】を超え means "exceeding (the boundary of) how human beings should be (and ...)".

  • My bad, it was actually 理, not 断り. I made a typo. '人の理を超え' would then mean "exceeding (the boundary of) how things should be/human logic", right? Also, thanks for the links. Commented Jul 19, 2018 at 8:43
  • @PolinaKorneeva Fine, I've edited your question and my answer accordingly.
    – naruto
    Commented Jul 19, 2018 at 9:01
  • 連用形のことを語幹って言ってしまったら語幹のことはなんて言えばいいんだろうといつも思う。
    – user4092
    Commented Jul 20, 2018 at 5:53
  • @user4092 日本の学校文法的な語幹のことであればそれに対応する概念はないということかと思います。何しろ「“染みる"の語幹はシで、"見る"には語幹がない」とかいうルールらしく、学習者の実用上はとても不便ですし。ちなみに学校文法的には「笑っ」とか「飛ん」とかも連用形の一種ですが、日本語教育の世界ではこれに対応する名前もないらしく驚いたことがあります。
    – naruto
    Commented Jul 20, 2018 at 6:44

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