When watching the news and other shows on television, I often see various written content displayed on the screen for brief periods of time, usually on the bottom, but sometimes on the right. I just learned that in English it is called closed captioning. I saw the term on Jisho, before posting. It is used frequently on news programs on a daily basis. Is there a Japanese term for this word? What is this content called?
テロップ (from English telop) is the generic word for any type of superimposed text on TV, and it's understood by everyone. You can see many テロップ's in the image below, at the top, right, left and bottom of the screen.
字幕 ("subtitle") is another common word, but it basically only refers to a transcription or translation of what the person on screen is saying.