Does the particle や come after particles like に or で (as does も in「にも」or「でも」), or does it come before them? I can't find any examples of either, be it through Google; in the Tatoeba database; or otherwise.

  • 2
    What definition of や are you using?
    – istrasci
    Jun 30 '18 at 22:00
  • As in "AやBや…" meaning "A,B,… and others."
    – odacaesar
    Jun 30 '18 at 22:56
  • in that usage, pretty sure your question is moot. That や links nouns or noun/gerund phrases. I can't even imagine why you would want to group other particles with it... Are you talking about leaving a final や hanging at the end, and whether a particle should come before or after that one?? Jun 30 '18 at 23:46
  • Yes, as in using the nouns grouped with や, in a postpositional phrase. The context that prompted me to ask this question currently was to use some order of「一等親」「や」「に」to say "among immediate family members etc." (and by extension, "among close family and friends"), about nicknames resulting from babytalk pronunciation of one's name. I've had this question before for other contexts, but I only today got around to asking aloud.
    – odacaesar
    Jul 1 '18 at 0:14
  • 2
    Possible duplicate of とか and など in same sentence
    – Chocolate
    Jul 1 '18 at 13:55

You would expect very little possibility to see the coordinative や and the case particle に next to each other.

や factors out the shortest different sections, so you will find [particle]+や in a XやY composition that X and Y ends in different particles.

{東京仙台]から来た人 (diff. nouns w/ same particle)

在籍期間が[2012年まで2018年から]の人 (diff. nouns w/ diff. particles)

That means the theoretical order would be にや, but in reality, you will be not likely to encounter such a situation, because に is one of central case marker in Japanese, and や stricter about syntactic leanness than its kinds* (such as か, とか and やら), which means, you need another particle, that is different than に but compared to に, to make something like にや appear. That would result in a very terrible type of zeugma, like conjoining subject and object together.

* cf.

× 先生ともだちそうだんする。


や in the sense that you are using it, is a linking particle between 2 or more nouns, and cannot be left "hanging" after a noun or noun phrase, so you would not have to worry about how to connect it to other particles.

If you want to imply "etc." or "and others", "and so on" after a single noun or noun phrase, then など (or などなど) would be more grammatical. Depending on the circumstances, とか might also be acceptable.

YES: 一等親友達には
YES: 一等親友達などには
YES: 一等親などなど(の関係人)には
NO: 一等親には

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