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I sometimes come across expressions like this:

土地、宅地の利用区分の"一形態"で、受託の用途に供せられる土地のことを言うことが一般的である。 (definition of 住宅地)

特に、国家・団体などが立てる、"一会計年度"の収支の見積もり。(definition of 予算)

Basically you have a noun which is preceded by 一. I interpret this as a way to say "a specific ...", like "特定の". Do you even pronounce it いち? Is it natural to do it with any kind of noun, or only with sinojapanese nouns?

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This is the use of 「一{いち}」 as a prefix and yes, it is read 「いち」. It can be used with all types of nouns -- Yamato, Sino-loanwords and katakana words.

When used with inanimate objects as in your examples, 「一」 means "a certain ~~", "a certain type/kind of ~~", etc.

「特定{とくてい}の」 would be too strong a word choice for the translation in most cases. It would be more natural to use 「ひとつの」、「一種{いっしゅ}の」、「ある」, etc.

When used with animate nouns, 「一」 becomes more nuanced and the "一 + noun" is usually, if not always, followed immediately by 「として」 ("as a ~~"). 

We say things like 「一人間{いちにんげん}として」、「一{いち}アスリートとして」, etc. When we use these phrases, we are being humble about who/what we are than when we just say 「アスリートとして」 without the 「一」 prefix.

「一」 in this usage means the same thing as 「一介{いっかい}の」 ("a mere ~~").

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