zettai ni yaranakyaikenai mono ga aru toki ni  

please help understand the meaning of this construct.
Does it mean - When/If not done at all?


-nakya is a shortened form of -nakereba, which is the negative conditional ("If it doesn't happen").

-nakereba ikenai / -nakereba naranai is a specific construct that essentially means "must" (it kind of translates to "it's forbidden to have not done").

So the fragment you have here translates to something like "When there are things you absolutely must do ..."


Good Question - this one had me stumped for while when I was learning.

~nakya ikenai is a casual and compressed way of saying ~nai to ikenai. Another version you frequently hear is ~nakucha ikenai. You won't see the ~nakya or ~nakucha construct in writing or in formal speech.

And just for clarification: all those constructs mean "have to verb".

shukudai wo yaranakya ikenai

shukudai wo yaranakucha ikenai

shukudai wo yaranai to ikenai

All mean "I have to do my homework". The bolded parts are interchangeable without altering the meaning.

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