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I am having some trouble with kore, sore, are, dore, dore no, kono, sono, ano, dono, koko, soko and doko. I know what they mean but I am trying to put them into sentence and the order of the particles is feeling like crap shoot. Not sure if this question fits this site but if does not; feel free to down vote it and ill go look somewhere else for help.

あれはわたしのペンてす。

I am assuming in this case わたしのペン can be thought of a noun meaning "my pen" then depending on kore sore or are wa we have "this is my pen", "that (near you) is my pen" and "that (over there) is my pen"

Can we also say あれはまちんのペンてす. or あれはあなたのペンてす. meaning "that is ma-san's pen (over there)" and "that is your pen (over there)"

What do we use このペンは for? How do we form だれのペンですか into "whose pen is this?///is this your pen?"

Would also like an example of how to use dono and dore for peoples.

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    あれはまちんのペンてす <-- 「まん」? ma-san would be まん or まーさん, no? 「てす」should be「 す」... – Chocolate May 31 '18 at 23:23
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For the series of location words colloquially known as the こそあど (ko-so-a-do) series, it's important to break these up into a few groups -- these groupings will help you understand how to use these words better.

I'm going to group them first by their beginning:

  1. Beginning with こ
  2. Beginning with そ
  3. Beginning with あ
  4. Beginning with ど

Words beginning with こ:

これ、この、ここ、こんな

These words have a "here" perspective from the speaker's point of view.

Words beginning with そ:

それ、その、そこ、そんな

These words have a "there" (by the listener) perspective from the speaker's point of view.

Words beginning with あ:

あれ、あの、あそこ、あんな

These words have an "over there" (away from both the speaker and listener) perspective from the speaker's point of view.

Words beginning with ど:

どれ、どの、どこ、どんな

These words are question words about locations or items.

Now, I'm going to group them by their endings:

  1. Ending in れ
  2. Ending in の
  3. Ending in こ
  4. Ending in んな

In these groups, then you get:

  1. Ending in れ

これ = This (indeterminate object)
それ = That (indeterminate object)
あれ = That [over there] (indeterminate object)
どれ = Which (indeterminate object)

Indeterminate object refers to an object that you are not calling by name. Sentences using これ・それ・あれ typically are used in sentences where an object that is unknown is explained, or when the object is understood by all parties and needs no explanation. Consider these following sentences:

これはあみさんのかばんです。
This is Ami's (school) bag.

それはわたしのみかんです。
That is my orange.

あれはわたしのすきなきっさてんです。
That (over there) is the tea shop that I like.

どれがとれるんですか。
Which (thing) can I take?

はい、これはあなたのものでしょう?
Here, this belongs to you, doesn't it?

As you can see, you can use this to refer to an object that isn't being called by name. In some of these sentences, the name of the object is given as part of the explanation.

  1. Ending in の

この = This (specific object)
その = That (specific object)
あの = That (specific, distant object over there)
どの = Which (specific object)

By specific object we refer to a specific target that is identified with the location word. Sentences that use these words normally explain more about a specific object or location in question. Consider the following:

このみせは、おいしいラーメンがあるよ。
This shop has delicious ramen, you know.

そのくつはきれいでだいすきです。
Those shoes are pretty and I like them a lot.

あのとしょかんにはさがしているほんはありませんでした。
That library did not have the book I was looking for.

どのえんぴつがさくらさんのえんぴつですか。
Which is Sakura's pencil?

Each of these sentences describe something more about a specific, given object or location.

  1. Ending in こ

ここ = this (place by the speaker) [or, "here"]
そこ = that (place by the listener) [or, "there"]
あそこ = that (place) [over there] (away from the speaker and listener)
どこ = Which (place) [or, "where"]

These words refer to locations in reference to the speaker and the listener's positions.

ここのちかくには、じてんしゃやがあります。
There is a bicycle shop near here.

そこのてんきはどうですか。
How is the weather there (over by you)?

あそこはにんきのようふくのみせです。
That (place over there) is a popular clothing shop.

びょういんはどこですか。
Where is the hospital?

  1. Ending in んな

This is probably the trickier of the bunch, and I might not do the explanation justice. However, these have perspective as do the previous sets of words. These words refer to collections of things. Think of the construction in English that is "these (kinds of things)" and similar constructions.

こんな = these (kinds of things) [or, "in this way"]
そんな = those (kinds of things) [or "in that way"]
あんな = those (kinds of things) [over there] [or, "in such a way"]
どんな = Which kinds of things

あんな is a special word that refers to the kinds of things both unfamiliar for speaker and listener. For that reason, it has similar perspectives as the previous あ words. Also, words ending in んな can be used with specific or indeterminate objects. When an object is given the same way that is used for words ending in の, the collection is assumed to be like objects to the one mentioned. Otherwise, it is assumed to be an assortment of things.

こんなことはうれしいです。
These kinds of things are fun.

そんなにあやまらなくてもいいですよ。
You don't have to apologize in that way, you know.

あんなばしょにいきたくありませんか。
Don't you want to go to a place like that?

どんなえいががすきですか。
Which kind of movies do you like?

  • @Chocolate I've changed the example now. Thank you for your edits! Sorry for thinking you were telling me something you weren't. – psosuna Jun 1 '18 at 0:27
  • 1
    いえいえ。Good luck, がんばってね (^^) – Chocolate Jun 1 '18 at 0:34
  • @psosuna This is an truly exceptional post thank you for such an informative answer! – Faust Jun 1 '18 at 0:43

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