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I can't understand very well this "続けた結果" found in the following description, from a Pokémon videogame.

1人の 科学者が 何年も 恐ろしい 遺伝子 研究を 続けた 結果 誕生した。

It is talking about a Pocket Monster, and its general meaning I think is "It was created by a scientist after years of horrific genetic researches", or "Born as result of years of horric genetic researches carried out by a scientist".

But I cannot understand grammatically what is the meaning of "続けた結果". Okay, 続けた is the past form of 続ける and 結果's meaning is "result, consequence, outcome, effect​..." But together?

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結果 forms a subordinate clause, just as some other Japanese nouns do. The best-known noun that works similarly is とき ("when"). You may know 場合 ("in case"), 瞬間 ("the moment"), and ほど ("to the extent") also form a subordinate clause without a subsequent particle. Rarer words that work similarly include 手前, 刹那 and 最中.

Grammatically, the part before 結果 is a relative clause that modifies 結果. The resulting clause means "in consequence of ~". Semantically, your understanding of the sentence is correct.

結果

副詞的に用いて、ある事態の生じるもととなる結末状態を表す。「猛勉強をした結果、合格した」

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