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外国人人材が日本の産業に欠かせない存在になる中、どうやって優秀な人材を獲得し、定着してもらうのか。企業だけでなく、国としても戦略を考える時がきているのかもしれない…取材を通じてそう感じました。

The two verbs that it could be (欠かす and 欠く) are transitive but in this sentence it doesn't seem to be a transitive verb...?

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欠かせない means "essential" "indispensable" "necessary".

Dictionary form -- 欠かす (transitive) "miss" "lack"
→ Potential form -- 欠かせる*
→ Negative Potential -- 欠かせない "can't miss/lack" → "essential"
* ([可能]かかせる is mentioned in デジタル大辞泉「欠かす」. Usually used in the negative form.)

I'm pretty sure you know you can use "object + が + transitive potential", as in:

「(私は)日本語ます。」 "I can speak Japanese."

Likewise, you could say:

「外国人人材欠かない」
"(we) can't lack / do without foreign workers" → "foreign workers are indispensable"

... But your example should be parsed:

外国人人材が{(日本の産業に欠かせない)存在に}なる

外国人人材 is the subject of なる, not 欠かせない. (日本の産業に欠かせない modifies 存在.)


欠かせない〇〇 can be rephrased as 欠かすことのできない〇〇, or 欠くことのできない〇〇 using transitive 欠く.

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