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スーザンは一人で淋しがっています。

My dictionary translates the above sentence as: Susan feels lonely by herself.

But I read it as: "Susan seems lonley by herself."

がっています in my dictionary is defined as:

Show signs of ~ | An auxiliary verb attached to a psychological/physiological adjective meaning a person other than the speaker shows signs of ~

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Breton's answer is not wrong. I like his explaination. However that translation is just a literal translation. The sentence "She acts lonely" is particularly strange.

The speaker has observed Susan, and interpreted her behavior/action as a sign of feeling lonely. It's different from らしい、よう、そう where there are uncertainties. With がる, you guess with certainty. That's why it's quite uncommon in normal conversation, and more suited to be used in narrations. In animations and such, it's more common to translate them as "she feels lonely, she seems lonely, she is lonely" but with the implications that the speaker observed her and noticed how she acted the loneliness. To be honest, I'd prefer "act" as a translation, but this verb with some words, sounds strange/uncommon.

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"to seem" implies that it is unsure. But がる doesn't have a nuance of uncertainty, so translating it with "seem" is wrong in my opinion.

...のように振る舞う。: Act (like)...

This is I think the closest definition of がる in this case. So I'd translate 淋しがっています by "She acts lonely".

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