I know that “Mr. A” can be translated as Aさんは. That part seems easy enough.

The word “even” seems to be tricky to translate. I know that “even” is being used as an adverb in sense of emphasizing facts or extreme cases. But the choices seem to be (で)さえ(も), すら, でも, までも, だって, and maybe a few others I missed. I simply don’t know which one I should pick in this case.

I came across this one guide on Japanese compound sentences. It seems that my options for translating the part of doing things are as follows:

  1. Xして、Yして、Zした。
  2. Xしたり、Yしたり、Zしたりした。

According that guide, the first option expresses a sequence of events, and the other option expresses an example list of verbs. I think the second option applies more to the sentence I'm trying to translate than the first.

I know that “and so on” can be translated as など, but I don’t know if I need it in translating this sentence.

So, I think it can be translated as AさんはさえXしたり、Yしたり、Zしたりした。

Am I on the right track here?


One comment wants to know if “even” applies to all the actions or just action X. For this sentence, “even” applies to all the actions. So how do I achieve this? Do I attach a Japanese equivalent to “even” to each action or just put one?

  • 1
    One question, is even supposed to apply to all the actions, or just X? May 15, 2018 at 20:41
  • That is a good question. I would say that “even” is supposed to apply to all the actions and not just action X. May 15, 2018 at 21:34
  • さえX -- 「さえ」 って助詞 (副助詞) なんで、名詞の前にはくっつけないですよね・・
    – chocolate
    May 16, 2018 at 0:19
  • @Chocolate: I translated your comment as “さえX – As for ‘さえ’, I can say with confidence that it is a particle (adverbial particle) and is not attached before a noun, right…?” Is that what you're trying to say? If so, I have to agree that さえ is not put before a noun. May 16, 2018 at 1:40
  • I meant to say: "さえ is an (adverbial) particle, so you don't attach it before a noun, you know" (I don't know which word of my comment you translated to "with confidence".)  ×「さえ+noun+する」 ◎「noun+さえ+する」「連用形verb+さえ+する」「~たり+さえ+する」etc.. だに、すら、まで、~だって、~でも・・・とかも助詞です
    – chocolate
    May 16, 2018 at 2:05

1 Answer 1


If this sentence is without "even" and "and so on", your first translation is good.

As for the position of "even", it is after "したり" like したりさえ and is placed only third action in your sentence like Aさんは、Xしたり、Yしたり、Zしたりさえした.

However It is not clear that a word "even" modifies only "did Z" or "did x, did Y, did Z". If you clearly mean that "even" modifies all the action, you can add さえ after each action like Aさんは、Xしたりさえ、Yしたりさえ、Zしたりさえした.

If you wan to add "and so on", the sentence become "Aさんは、Xしたり、Yしたり、Zしたりなどさえした. In this case, I think it is interpreted as "even" modifies all actions because "did x, did Y, did Z" would be interpreted as one unit by using "and so on(など)".

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