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Initially, I thought the word 苦しみ抜いた was just a typical verb that you can search up in the dictionary but apparently that is not the case and so my question is that how does that word come about ? Are there any grammatical rules behind that word or something ?

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「Verb in 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) + 抜{ぬ}く」

is a must-remember compound verb meaning:

"to (verb) thoroughly, completely, to the end, etc."

「苦しみ」 is the 連用形 of the verb 「苦しむ」. Thus, 「苦しみ抜く」 means "to suffer thoroughly" and 「苦しみ抜いた」 is its past-tense form.

The verb 「抜く」 has so many meanings and the above is the 15th meaning/usage of the verb listed in デジタル大辞泉.

Definition #15 says:

15 (動詞{どうし}の連用形{れんようけい}に付{つ}いて)そのことを最後{さいご}までする。しとおす。また、すっかり…する。しきる。「難工事{なんこうじ}をやり―・く」「がんばり―・く」「ほとほと困{こま}り―・く」

「やりぬく」 and 「がんばりぬく」 are very often used in people's conversations.

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