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We recently learned んです form in class and I think I understand when to use it. But I'm a little unclear about how conjugation of it works.

んです itself doesn't get conjugated, right? You conjugate the verb/noun/adjective that comes before it.

  • 頭がいたいんです。
  • 風邪をひいたんです。
  • 本が好きなんです。

And, as with な adjectives, な also gets added after nouns. But how would this work in the past tense?

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    Be aware that the ん here is a contraction of の. The です is just the regular copula ("is" verb): plain form is だ, plain past is だった, polite form is です, polite past is でした. – Eiríkr Útlendi Apr 25 '18 at 21:37
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んです itself doesn't get conjugated, right?

んです(≂ のです; particle の + copula です) conjugates to:

んです、んでした、んでしょう、(んでして、) -- polite
んだ、んだった、んだろう、んで、んなら -- plain

And, as with な adjectives, な also gets added after nouns. But how would this work in the past tense?

You replace な with だった, as in:

んです。→ 花だったんです。

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