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もう一度やってみるようにと彼を励ましなさい。 I'm confused by the usage of と here. もう一度やってみるように彼を励ましなさい。would be translated as "in order to make him try one more time, please encourage him" but with と I'm not sure how it'd be translated.

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もう一度{いちど}やってみるように彼{かれ}を励{はげ}ましなさい。

『もう一度やってみるように。』彼を励ましなさい。

The 「と」 is the quotative particle. Whenever you encounter a 「と」 that seems difficult to understand, try putting the preceding phrase in quotation marks. If that helped you comprehend the sentence, that 「と」 would be quotative 99% of the time.

Thus, the sentence means:

Please encourage him to try to do it one more time.

or, more literally,

Please encourage him by saying "Try to do it one more time."

「~~ように」 as a request/order is explained here:

Can ようにする be used without する in colloquial speech?

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