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"一人当たり3個ずつパンを配ります。 I will hand out three pastries per person."

"一人当たり"indicates it's "per person", is it possible to remove the ずつ and keep the same meaning ? (maybe add a の or move the counter also)

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「一人当{ひとりあ}たり3個{こ}ずつパンを配{くば}ります。」

The 「ずつ」 is not necessary here as you guessed. It is actually making the sentence sound slightly wordy for using both 「当たり」 and 「ずつ」. (You need to know, however, that many people speak like that when speaking informally in real life.)

More neatly, one could say:

「一人当たり3個、パンを配ります。」

「一人当たりパンを3個配ります。」

「一人3個ずつパンを配ります。」

「一人につき3個、パンを配ります。」

「一人につき、パンを3個配ります。」

「につき」 is slightly more informal than 「当たり」.

maybe add a の or move the counter also

Do you mean to say 「3のパン」? If so, no, that would be both ungrammatical and unnatural. 「3個のパン」 would be okay, but not using a 「の」 at all would be the most natural way.

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