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To ask, for example, "Have you already finished doing homework?", is there any difference in using か, の and のか?

もう宿題を終えたか?
もう宿題を終えたの?
もう宿題を終えたのか?

I'm a little bit confused about how many different question particles are there in Japanese and the difference between them (which are said by men, which ones by women, which are stronger in emphasis, etc.). Is there any site where this kind of things are explained?

Thank you so much in advance for your help!

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From what I know, か is the standard question particle, and is used universally by everyone.
の is primarily used by women.
I haven't heard of のか, so I looked it up and here is your answer. Judging from the first result, I don't think のか is a question particle.
か isn't usually emphatic but its more masculine variant かい is.
の can be emphatic, but when I use it in writing, to be on the safe side, I use it with わ, the feminine emphatic particle. のか is definitely empathic, as

It reflects lamentation on the preceding statement. (From the page in the link)

From all of this, I can say that anyone can say 「もう宿題【しゅくだい】を終【お】えたか?」, but 「もう宿題を終えたの?」is more likely to be said by females. 「もう宿題を終えたのか?」doesn't make sense, either in usage or translation. Personally I recommend 「もう宿題を終えたかよ?」or 「もう宿題を終えたのわ?」to emphasize the もう (already).

You also have to consider regional variations. と and け (Satsugu dialect) is used as the question particle in the Kyushu dialect, け and か in the Kansai dialect.

Not that you may be interested, but a person who speaks in Kyushu dialect would say 「も宿題【しゅくで】を終【お】えっけだい?」.
I am not very experienced in Japanese or the Kyushu or Kansai dialects (I learnt Kyushu dialect using Wikipedia only), so please correct me if I have made a mistake.

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