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What I'm trying to say is "what time is it in Japan right now?". My main problem is if I placed 今 correctly and if I should use に or は?

  • に doesn't function as a locative marker (but で) because attribution is not a "static action" (which is a confusing term, I think). – user4092 Apr 3 '18 at 22:01
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Most commonly and naturally, it should be:

「今日本{いまにほん}何時{なんじ}ですか。」

You located 「今」 correctly, but used the wrong particle 「に」. A comma after the 「今」 is optional.

Also common would be:

「日本は今何時ですか。」

Finally, you can only start a sentence with 「今日本」 when it is followed by a verb describing a stative action as in:

・「今日本います。」 ("I am in Japan now.")

・「今日本住{す}んでいます」 ("I live in Japan now.")

How about 「で」, one would ask. 「で」 can be used when it is followed by an "active" (as opposed to "stative") verb. You can say:

・「今日本大学{だいがく}に行{い}っています。」 ("I am attending college in Japan now.")

・「今日本プログラミングの勉強{べんきょう}をしています。」 ("I am studying computer programming in Japan now.")

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