1

Said at the start of the summer holidays:

「お役に立てて光栄です。丸尾スエオ二学期もがんばりますから、みなさんどうかよろしくいたします」
It's an honour to be helpful. Maruo Sueo will do his best in the second term too so thanks for your support everyone.
うやうやしく頭を下げた丸尾君のその心は、二学期の学級委員の選挙運動をも見据えていた。
The mind of Maruo, who was respectfully bowing his head, was focused on the election for class representative for the second term.

In the first part in bold (丸尾スエオ二学期もがんばります) I would have expected to see the particle に (丸尾スエオ二学期にもがんばります) "Maruo will do his best in the second term too. Would this also be correct? If so, why can it be omitted?

In the second part in bold I was surprised to see をも. I thought も always replaced を. What's going on here?

2

For the first question, you can say 二学期は頑張ります, so you can say 二学期も頑張ります, too. You can find lots of existing questions regarding は vs に vs には.

も does not always replace を. The combination をも can be used to strongly emphasize the object it marks. The English equivalent of this をも is "even".

彼の拳は岩をも砕く。 His fist even breaks a rock.

This をも is relatively literary. すら, まで, or stressed も is usually preferred in conversations.

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