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(1)A (2)B を表すように、二分したものがそれぞれ別々の意味になればことは簡単であるが、言葉の場合は、なかなか...

Usually こと functions as a "形式名詞" or other grammatical roles, but this one seems not a "形式名詞" since the former part of the sentence is "ば"(仮定表現). How should I interpret this "こと" in "ことは簡単である"?

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「こと」 roughly means "the matter" in that context. As you stated, it is not used as a dummy noun there.

"If each of the bisected parts had a different meaning as in "(1)A (2)B", the matter would be simple, but as for words/language, it would not be very (simple)."

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