2

I have some sentences that involve the usage of と that I still don't understand:

1. This is from another user's post

私はあなたがいつも忙しい分かっています。

2. My previous question

いつも変えてたまに外で食事しよう。


At the very basic level, this post pretty much sums up what I understand about と. I added a few more usages based on what I learnt so far.

  • Quotation or defining particle

e.g. [X]は日本語でなん言いますか?How do you say [X] in Japanese?

e.g. 日本語は難しい思います。(I) think Japanese is difficult.

e.g. 彼は明日来る言った。 He said that he will come tomorrow.

  • Conditional particle

e.g. 彼は暇だいつもゲームをしているの。If he is free, he always plays games.

  • List of things

e.g. ナイフフォークでステーキを食べた。(I) ate steak with a knife and fork.

  • With/Partner of interaction/Accompaniment

e.g. 友達映画に行った。(I) went to watch a movie with my friend.

e.g. 父似ている。(I) resemble my father.

  • Objects of similarity/difference

e.g. 私の意見は彼の意見異なる。My opinion is different from everyone.

e.g. いつも同じ電車です。(It) is the same train as usual.

  • Sound/Onomatopoeia

e.g. 星がきらきら輝いている。The stars are twinkling.

I understand there are many more uses of と that I did not include in the list and that I may not be aware of.


I have trouble connecting both of the sentences above into one of the listed categories.

But if I had to guess, と under sentence 1 is used as a Quotation or defining particle? Such as the second example 日本語は難しいと思います。

And for sentence 2, I see it used like いつもと同じ電車です under Objects of similarity/difference.

But I'm confused here because 変える is not a "similarity" but a "change from usual". However, I might have a misconception that と is not just used for objects of similarity or differences in this particular case.

Can someone explain how と is used in each of the sentences above? I would appreciate similar examples like ones provided above to help me understand how と is used in these cases, and I'm really thankful to anyone who can help clear up my confusion with this particle.

  • 2
    How is と変えて not expressing a difference? – mamster Mar 4 '18 at 5:37
  • @mamster So far I've only encountered examples that uses と in cases like "A is not the same as B" and that's what I thought "difference" meant e.g. と違う. In this sentence, と変える seemed more like "change from A to B" to me. But maybe definition of "difference" is much broader than what I thought, I would like to know some similar examples. Like can you use と終わる, と始める etc.? – shade549 Mar 4 '18 at 8:19
4

As for your first sentence, you're right that the と is a quotative particle.
It's often used with a verb that introduces one's utterance or thought, e.g. 言う, 思う, 感じる, 知る, 分かる, 話す, etc.

A few examples:

嫌だと言う
危ないと感じる
やめようと思った
痛い顔をしかめる (「言って」「思って」 etc. are occasionally left out)
これが最後別れを惜しむ
(examples above taken from 明鏡国語辞典)
正しいという結論に達する
(from デジタル大辞泉)


As for your second sentence, you're right again that the と indicates 「比較・類別の際に照合される相手」(明鏡国語辞典) , 「比較の基準」(デジタル大辞泉), or "Object of Similarity/Difference" in your list.
The と is often used with a verb or adjective that expresses difference, change, similarity, identity (sameness), or comparison, e.g. 同じ, 違う, 異なる, 似る, 比べる, etc. and it functions like "(same) as..." "(different/differentiate) from..." "(similar) to..." "(compare) with...". In your example, ~と変える is used to mean "change from...". (~と変える can also mean "change into~~" (≂~に変える) depending on context, and the と here indicates 動作の結果. By the way, ~と[代]{か}える/[替]{か}える can mean "exchange for~~/replace with~~", where the と indicates 動作の対象.)

A few examples:

あなたと同じ考えだ
以前は条件が異なる
父[子]は子[父]と似ている
(examples taken from 明鏡国語辞典)
君の比べものにならない
と違う
(from デジタル大辞泉)


By the way, the example 父と似ている。(I) resemble my father is categorized in With/Partner of interaction/Accompaniment in your list, but I think it should fall under Objects of similarity/difference.

0
  1. 私はあなたがいつも忙しいと分かっています。

Question A:

と under sentence 1 is used as a Quotation or defining particle? Such as the second example 日本語は難しいと思います。

Yes, it is. I'll show you the reason.
日本語は難しいと思います could be rewritten as:
(a)「日本語は難しい」思います。
Sentence 1 could be rewritten as:
(b)「あなたがいつも忙しい」私は分かっています。
と in (a) and (b) has the same function as quotation or defining particle.

  1. いつもと変えてたまに外で食事しよう。

Question B:

と is not just used for objects of similarity or differences in this particular case.

と in 2 is not used for objects of similarity or differences.
Why do you have the idea that と in 2 is like that in 私の意見は彼の意見異なる or that in いつも同じ電車です?
There is no such suggestions in the answers here.
I think いつもと(変える) in 2 means "(change) from a usual manner/custom".
Anyway some words are omitted in 2, so the omission might make you confused.
The full text of 2 might be like:
- いつもの習慣{しゅうかん}/やり方{かた} と変えてたまに外で食事しよう。
- いつも家{いえ}で食{た}べるという習慣{しゅうかん} と変えてたまに外で食事しよう。

  • 1
    I've never learned that usage of と to indicate change from a past habit. It doesn't fit into any of the categories I listed above? Are there other verbs that take similar forms and can be used with と to indicate change for example? – shade549 Mar 4 '18 at 12:45
  • @Shade549: >Are there other verbs that take similar forms and can be used with と: いつも(のやり方)と違{たが}えて; いつも(のやり方)と間違{まちが}えて; いつも(のやり方)と異{こと}なって. – mackygoo Mar 4 '18 at 13:04

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