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What is the difference between various ways of saying ”I have heard that”.
らしい んだって とか(言っていた) ということだ。

A: 田中さん、今日は休み?
B: さっき電話があって、熱があるとか。大丈夫でしょうか?

義理の兄と情を通じていたということだ。 I have heard that/It's said that/rumor has it that she's been having an affair with her brother-in-law.

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    Could you maybe give examples? I have trouble finding sentences with とか or ということだ which would translate to "I have heard that [...]". – Earthliŋ Feb 13 '18 at 16:45
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    Yes, and sorry! – personanongrata Feb 13 '18 at 17:04
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~らしい

  • This means that you heard the information from another source.

~だって

  • This means that you are just repeating what someone said.

~とか

  • This means "among other things", or informally "and stuff".

~ということだ

  • This means "rumor has it" or "it appears as if" or "how I understand it".

~言っていた

  • This means something was said by a subject.

There are subtle differences between them, and you will notice that some are more commonly used. "~だって" or "~言っていた" for the most informal situations.

  • It would be best to experiment with them and take notice of reactions. But just as in English there are many ways to say the same thing. It depends on what comes out naturally in whatever situation, and we rarely say the same thing every time. – Black Cable Feb 14 '18 at 1:36
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    とか means "among other things", or informally "and stuff" -- その「とか」じゃありません。。。 – Chocolate Feb 14 '18 at 1:40
  • I do believe it is not mistaken. More closely it can be read as "something of the matter". There are many ways to read into it and the above mentioned is well within reasonable translations. Even if there was one part of the answer you deemed inadequate, it does not make the answer unhelpful. – Black Cable Feb 14 '18 at 7:14
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    The とか OP's talking about consists of the quotative (引用) particle と + adverbial particle か. The とか in your answer is the listing particle (並立助詞) と + adverbial particle か. They are attached to different words, and have different meanings. 今回の質問の「とか。」は、「~だとか。」「Sentence + とか。」の形で使うもので、"They say~~" "It is said that~~"って意味です。「AとかBとか」の「とか」じゃありません。 – Chocolate Feb 14 '18 at 7:29
  • Even if there was one part of the answer you deemed inadequate, it does not make the answer unhelpful. -- あの、、downvote したの私じゃないですけど? – Chocolate Feb 14 '18 at 7:55

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