As with any language you need to tailor your speech to the audience. If it is an internal conference, with insiders only, it would be phrased much differently than a conference or presentation which involves members of the public who are not insiders. I am assuming that it will include non-insiders.
I would suggest a couple things:
・Try to use proper names whenever possible.
Instead of 弊社, use the company name. Instead of ‘my colleague’, use A社B部のCが。。。をします。
Instead of ‘our department’, or ‘his department’, simply say the name of the department.
・If there is already (as I would expect there is) a name for your presentation, you should use it. A社のInvestor’s meetingにご参加いただいた皆様、こんにちは / A社のInvestor’s meeting ご参加いただきありがとうございます。Is it a 説明会or something else?
・If the audience had to brave bad weather or a busy schedule to attend, this should be mentioned, preferably as a preface to your main introduction. 寒い中、豪雨中、ご多忙中、etc.
Welcome / Thank you for attending our conference. — 皆さん、我が会議へ良くいらっしゃいました。
I would use 皆様. Use company name and name of presentation/conference. Also, 良くいらしました is likely too casual.
I represent ... department. — ・・・部の代表で、・・・と申します。
ABC電気（株式会社）、研究部代表のTom Sawyer と申します。
Our department is involved in development of... — 我が分は・・・の開発に携わっています。
The industry nowadays is facing the following problems:... — 現在、業界は次の問題に向かっています。
現在、電機業界（全体）は…向かっております。Or が instead of は if the problems being faced are considered particular to your industry.
To address this issue, we have... — こう言う問題に答えて、我が社は・・・
Again, say the name of your company.
To meet the needs of our [highly respected] customers, we have... — 我が顧客のニーズを満たすため、我が社は・・・
お客様/大事なお客様 sounds better than 顧客. Company nameのお客様 or 弊社のお客様のニーズ… or simply お客様のニーズ.
My colleague will now come forth with more detailed information. — これからは私の同僚は詳細な情報を提示して上げます。
Titles serve a necessary function here. Just introducing someone as ‘a colleague’ would likely be considered rude in this circumstance. 我々ABC電気、営業部のMary Sutton が詳しい情報の説明をさせていただきます or something to that effect.
Some standard phrase to be said before presenting the main content, like "Please listen carefully / I hope you will enjoy / Thank you for your attention" — ???
私の分をご親切に聞いていただいてありがとうございました。[Hand off] or ご静聴ありがとうございました。
If it is an important speech, you should be able to communicate your message effectively while maintaining interest. It doesn't take much to shift the focus from what you are presenting to the method in which you are presenting it. Improper use of the language will distract the audience and frankly speaking, if there are any Japanese language natives in your organization you should press them to help refine your speech.