On jisho.org, words like ''達する'' are marked as ''Suru verb - special class''. What is this so called ''special verb class?''


I think they are special because they have different conjugations from normal する-verbs, for example...

Regular する-verbs conjugate like...

勉強する → 勉強できる(potential) 勉強しよう(volitional) 勉強しない(negative)
理解する → 理解できる(potential) 理解しよう(volitional) 理解しない(negative)

The "special" する-verbs conjugate like...

達する → 達せられる/?達せる(potential) 達しよう(volitional) 達しない/達さない(negative)
愛する → 愛せる(potential) 愛そう(volitional) 愛さない(negative)
訳する → 訳せる(potential) 訳そう(volitional) 訳さない(negative)


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  • ムズい・・・ 達する、愛する、訳する、察する、は special verbs で、達す、愛す、訳す、察す、禁じる・禁ず・禁ずる、は godan/ichidan だって~ ふえええ – Chocolate Jan 29 '18 at 5:22

From Wikipedia:

These are single kanji suru forms. ‘While 〜する suru verbs following a two-kanji compound are regular (using the admittedly irregular conjugation of suru), behaving as a kanji noun followed by an independent verb, there is irregular behavior for single kanji suru verbs, and they behave as a single fused word, with various forms and sometimes irregular conjugation. ‘

Below are some examples of single-kanji ‘special’ forms, compound forms, and regular verb forms. Note that meaning/nuance can change between the different forms:

Single - Double - Regular form

旅する - 旅行する - X

反する - 対抗する - 反る

与する -  供与 - 与える

休する - 休憩する - 休む

生ずる - 生起する - 生きる

禁ずる - 禁止する - X

要する - 要求する - 要る

In Japanese, these are called サ行変格活用 (irregular conjugation suru-form verbs).

There are pages of examples of these verbs and their meanings that can be found here.

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