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E.g. How much longer are you staying in the country for your holiday?

残る sounds wrong. So is 住む。 Help appreciated.

  • what about 残り? It seems like that was used most when it came to me staying in the country. Usually, they'd ask when I was leaving, not how long I was staying (i.e. いつ帰るの?) – ajsmart Jan 24 '18 at 22:01
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In general, when asking how long someone will stay in a certain place, one would use 居る{いる}.

住む implies long-term (permanent) residence. 残る would imply remaining beyond what was expected or allowed as a length of stay. 居残{いのこ}る = To stay behind, to be left behind. Even if you are asking someone how much longer they will remain, you would still normally use:

「あとどれぐらい日本にいますか?」(How much longer will you be in Japan?)

For stay at accommodations specifically, 滞在{たいざい} would be appropriate.

As was mentioned in one of the comments, people will often just ask when you are returning to 'your' country, à la 「国にはいつ帰{かえ}るの?」.

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