The confusion arises from context. It would help to know exactly what the context for "Japanese Notes" is. As you might be able to tell, in English, the combination can mean several things, such as:
- Notes about Japan
- Notes from a Japanese person
- Notes from Japanese people in general
- Notes about Japanese (as a school subject)
- Notes about the Japanese language
- Notes in the Japanese language
Add to this the fact that a "Note" can be scribbled on a memo pad, a notebook, a piece of paper, an email, or even a word document on your PC, and you can see where some of the confusion begins.
Assuming that the proper context is, based on your question, "Japanese Notes" as in the title of a notebook you keep with notes about the Japanese language as you study it, I would say that this might be translated as 日本語｛にほんご｝のノート.
If you mean to refer to the specific content of the notebook, you might say 日本語のメモ instead. Think on this sentence:
I write my Japanese class notes in a notebook.
To disambiguate, here's a few key points:
a memo pad where someone might write reminder notes, or, also, a note in the sense of the message captured
a notebook (the kind you write things in for school subjects)
As for other languages, you'd replace 日本語｛にほんご｝ for the language which you're referring to. For example, English would be 英語｛えいご｝, Spanish would be スペイン語｛ご｝, and so on.