For full context: http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/easy/k10011277371000/k10011277371000.html

The sentence in question: そして「これが戦争の結果だ」というローマ法王のメッセージが書いてあります。

My attempt at translation: "Furthermore, the roman popes message is written 'these are fruits of war'."

I've seen this many times in the meantime, but I still can't really explain why 書いてあります is written here. I think the subject of this predicative is not defined, and this is okay, I just wonder why no passive voice is used because this would at least follow the grammar I know xD


1 Answer 1


It's because 書いてある is more common and orthodox than 書かれている (passive for inanimate objects), which was originally not considered grammatical and relatively recently came to be accepted. In terms of modern grammar, either will be fine.

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