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Reading on internet, I see that, in Japanese, the way we call members of our family is different of the way we call member of other family. For example: I will my father 父{ちち}, and the father of a friend お[父]{とう}さん. But, in animes, I've see characters using お[父]{とう}さん to call his own father. The same with 姉{あね} or 兄{あに} and お[姉]{ねえ}さん or お[兄]{にい}さん. How does it work?

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It depends on situations that we call my father 父 or お父さん.

[1] The case of using 父
It would be better for us to use 父 on formal occasions like introducing my father to others. Example sentences are following:
私の父は医者だ。 / My father is a doctor.
今の私があるのは父のおかげだ。 / My father has made me what I am today.

[2] The case of using お父さん
We usually use お父さん at home. Maybe 'dad' corresponds お父さん.
私は父のことを家ではお父さんと呼んでいる。 / I call my father お父さん at home.
息子は私のことを家ではお父さんと呼んでいる。 / My son calls me お父さん at home.

Also, we can call our friend's father either 父 or お父さん.
彼の父(お父さん)は医者だ。 / His father is a doctor.

母/お母さん、兄/お兄さん、姉/お姉さん are same as 父/お父さん.

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