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I've heard different things - on the one hand saying things like 高いか, きれいか, or 飲むか is too aggressive, but in my grammar book it says that か is used with informal forms. Furthermore I'm told that instead of using か with informal forms, one should simply slightly raise one's voice.

Finally, I've heard questions simply asked by using だ, such as in それがどういう意味だ? or 何だ?

I'd appreciate some clarification. Thanks

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高いか, きれいか, or 飲むか

If you say them with slightly raising voice, they are questions, too aggressive (or they sound rude, rough or impolite) and informal.
Usually we say like 高い, きれい, or 飲む with lightly raising voice in daily conversation instead.

By the way 飲むか with strong and without raising voice, it means "I reject to drink". If you say "a verb + か" with this kind of voice it means to reject to do the action of the verb.

それがどういう意味だ? or 何だ?

If you say them with strong voice, they sound extremely aggressive, and in general you can expect that a phrase inducing fights or quarrels like "文句あるのか? Are you complaining? Have you any objection? or Do you have anything to complain about?" will continue.

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