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専門家などは、このミサイルはアメリカに届くぐらい遠くまで飛ぶと考えています。
Experts think that this missile will fly far enough to reach America.

I've never seen まで used with an adverb before. This translation is my best guess. Extrapolating from my guess I made this sentence:

レースに勝つぐらい速くまで走る。
I will run fast enough to win the race.

Is this a natural sentence and does it mean what I think it means? Would this construction be used in everyday speech? If not, how would I express the same idea?

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「専門家{せんもんか}などは、このミサイルはアメリカに届{とど}くぐらい遠{とお}くまで飛{と}ぶと考{かんが}えています。」

Experts think that this missile will fly far enough to reach America.

Your translation is just plain good here if not literal.

It is, however, incorrect to translate:

I will run fast enough to win the race.

to

「レースに勝{か}つぐらい速{はや}くまで走{はし}る。」

The use of 「まで」 is incorrect here.

「まで」 can only describe a physical distance when combined with 「遠く」 and followed by a verb like 「走る」, but this sentence is all about a velocity and not about a distance.

Thus, the correct way to say this would be:

「レースに勝つ(or 勝てる)ぐらい速く走る。」

Using 「勝てる」 would be slightly more natural.

Finally, you stated:

"I've never seen まで used with an adverb before. "

「遠く」 here is a noun meaning 「遠いところ」.

https://kotobank.jp/word/%E9%81%A0%E3%81%8F-581820#E3.83.87.E3.82.B8.E3.82.BF.E3.83.AB.E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.B3.89

「名{めい}」 is short for 「名詞{めいし}」, which means a "noun".

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