Consider the following sentences.

  • 警察官が免許を没収した。The police officer seized (my) license.
  • 免許が警察官に没収された。(My) license was confiscated by the police officer.

If I want to use 「免許が没収になった。」, how can I insert 警察官 into it?


You can use ~によって and say 免許が警察官によって没収になった. 免許が警察官に没収になった would also be understood, but many people would say this is clumsy due to the duplication of に.

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You can put 警察官 in the beginning. 警察官により免許が没収になった。. It sounds bit awkward but I think it works in the same way.

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