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I know they all mean something is 'difficult to do', 'hard to...' etc but why have three versions? are they used in different grammatical structures or contexts?

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You mean ...にくい。...づらい。...がたい。?like the following

I think these two are interchangeable. At least for me, I can’t find semantic difference. “彼の説明は理解しにくい/理解しづらい” Both explains “it is hard for me to understand his explanation.

...がたい is a bit different. “彼の説明は理解しがたい。”

It is incomprehensible for me to understand his explanation. Or, it is unlikely for me understand his explanation.

I think it is strange to use ...がたい for sense verb since they have the word describes hardness of physical property ...がたい.

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