1

The narrator explains his way of talking to adults, and then:

するとそのおとなは、自分と同じように趣味のいい人間と知り合えたと感じて、ごきけんになるわけだ....
And that adult feels that he has been able to get to know a person with good hobbies like his own, and ????

I can't understand the last part (ごきけんになるわけだ).

Firstly, I assume the adult wouldn't put ご on a word referring to himself so I guess ごきけん is the narrator. So maybe I can translate it as:

surely he (the narrator) will become a distinguished person.

But I'm doubtful. Isn't it a bit self-serving for the narrator to assume that adult would add the honorific ご? These things confuse me a lot. Maybe my translation isn't even close. I have no confidence about this.

3

「するとそのおとなは、自分{じぶん}と同{おな}じように趣味{しゅみ}のいい人間{にんげん}と知{し}り合{あ}えたと感{かん}じて、[ごきけん]*になるわけだ。」

First, the word should be 「ごきん」 and not 「ごきん」. In kanji, it is 「ご機嫌{きげん}」.

Firstly, I assume the adult wouldn't put ご on a word referring to himself so I guess ごきけん is the narrator.

Sorry but you look very confused here. Or is it just several typos on your part? I honestly have no idea what you are talking about.

It is the adult that is "becoming happy" (= ごきげんになる) in the narrator/speaker's assumption.

The core of this sentence is 「するとそのおとなはごきげんになるわけだ。」. The middle part 「自分と同じように趣味のいい人間と知り合えたと感じて」 simply provides the reason for そのおとな to become ごきげん.

「自分」 here refers to 「そのおとな」.

「趣味のいい人間」 refers directly and originally to the narrator, but also indirectly and secondarily refers to the adult because the adult thinks that he , too, has good taste.

The sentence, therefore, could be rewritten as:

「すると、自分と同じように趣味のいい人間と知り合えたと感じて、そのおとなはごきげんになるわけだ。」

My own mostly literal TL:

"Then, upon feeling that he has been able to meet a man of good taste just as himself, the adult gets to become really happy."

2

Judging by the context, I believe the original text is "ごきげん" with a rather than , and the most fitting translation is "... gets into a good mood", which would make perfect sense as something that would happen when someone meets someone else with a good taste of hobbies.

This would also answer your second question -- It's his/her (the adult, not the narrator) mood, hence the . The narrator is being polite when talking about the adult.

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