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I know these both are used a delimiters when things are listed in a way implying the list is not necessarily limited to the things explicitly mentioned, but when would one be used over the other?

  • jisho.org/search/%E3%82%84%E3%82%89 As it says, semantic difference between the conjunctive particle usage and や is uncertainty. In addition, やら has usages as an adverbial particle and a sentence ending particle as well. – user4092 Oct 16 '17 at 13:42
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I am going to take your question literally and discuss only the difference between 「や」 and 「やら」 as parallel markers and not as other types of particles.

「や」 is used to juxtapose nouns and nominalized words only.

「やら」 is used to juxtapose not only nouns but also adjectives and verbs.

For that very reason, the two words are not always interchangeable.

Examples:

Nouns:

〇「日本{にほん}に行{い}ったら、スシたこやきすきやきなどを食{た}べてみたい。」

〇「日本に行ったら、スシやらたこやきやらすきやきなどを食べてみたい。」

Adjectives:

✖「もうすぐ卒業{そつぎょう}。うれしいかなしい、複雑{ふくざつ}な気持{きも}ちです。」

〇「もうすぐ卒業。うれしいやらかなしいやら、複雑な気持ちです。」

Verbs:

✖「プールに行く、ゲームをするで、忙{いそが}しい夏休{なつやす}みだった。」

〇「プールに行くやら、ゲームをするやらで、忙しい夏休みだった。」

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