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The sentence:

とある田舎の村が魔獣の被害にあっているとして、偶然そこに立ち寄ったとしよう。お前ならどうする?

What is verb (non-volitional) + としよう used for?

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「Verb + としよう」, in this context, is used to introduce a hypothetical situation. It is roughly the equivalent of:

"Let's assume/suppose that ~~."

As you seem to have noticed, this expression has nothing to do with 「Volitional Verb + とする」, which means "to try to (verb)".

「とある田舎{いなか}の村{むら}が魔獣{まじゅう}の被害{ひがい}にあっているとして、偶然{ぐうぜん}そこに立{た}ち寄{よ}ったとしよう。 お前{まえ}ならどうする?」  

thus means:

"Let's assume that a certain village has fallen victim to a beast and then you accidentally dropped by there. What would you do?"

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    and として is used as "and then"? Commented Sep 19, 2017 at 14:48
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    @personanongrata (と)する here means "to suppose/assume" ≂「(と)仮定する」. として is its te-form, so として literally means "suppose/assume and..." ≂「~と仮定して」. 「~~として、・・・としよう。」≂「~~と仮定して、・・・と仮定しよう。」 "Let's suppose that ~~ and (suppose) that ..."
    – chocolate
    Commented Sep 20, 2017 at 3:45

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