For full context, see here: https://www.docdroid.net/hK45eJm/img-20170916-0001-new.pdf

The sentence in question was taken from line 6-7: 現金収入が少ないため、費用をかけずに行わなければならないからである。

First, my attempt at translation: "Because the income was low, they didn't pay the costs while it was performed."

I just don't know how to translate a sentence which has two parts giving a cause. It seems like there are only causes, but no consequences xD

Second, 費用をかけずに. The only interpretation for かける which seemed to make sense in this context was number 3 on jisho: "3. to take (time, money); to expend (money, time, etc.)​" http://jisho.org/search/kakeru But I feel rather insecure about it, so I wanted to ask you for confirmation.

  • You'd better also include the previous sentence in your question, which is the "missing" consequence.
    – fefe
    Sep 16, 2017 at 15:19
  • I can't see how the previous sentence is necessarily the consequence of the two causes mentioned in the sentence in question. At first, villagers helping together to build their housing is a mere fact. It is of course possible that the villagers constructing their own houses wasnt the norm even at this time (18th century). Although I find this hard to believe. Usually, especially in the rural areas, there were no enterprises offering the service of building your house, were there? Thats why I didnt think of this as a consequence of the low income.
    – Narktor
    Sep 16, 2017 at 16:36

1 Answer 1


First I have to quote more context from your original article:


The logic here is as the following:

現金収入が少ない (Income is low) ==> 費用をかけずに行わなければならない (have to do it without paying the cost) ==> 村人が協力しあって行う (the villager help each other to do it).

So in the original sentence that you quoted, "ため" and "から" both show "causes", and the final "consequence" is in the sentence before.

My translation attempt is:
This is because, with the low income, they had to do it without paying the costs.

I think your interpretation of かける is correct.

  • So, you purposely did not translate 「からである」 for whatever reason? "Because" in your TL is for 「ため」, right?
    – user4032
    Sep 16, 2017 at 15:56
  • @l'électeur Because of my bad English ...
    – fefe
    Sep 16, 2017 at 23:32
  • Let me try to rephrase it ...
    – fefe
    Sep 16, 2017 at 23:37

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