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Both adverbs has the basic meaning "most, extremely". There are also ずいぶん and とても.

So, とても is the first word we usually learn that means "very". Then I learned 最も as a superlative. As for ずいぶん, I understand that it is somewhat subjective to the speaker and carries a feeling of surpise. And now I stumbled across 非常に, how is it different from the other superlatives?

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    There is no big differences about them and others, I found an excellent page about their differences in use, context and commonness, but It's all in japanese :X – CrisCM Sep 14 '17 at 12:34
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非常{ひじょう} as a noun means "Unusual situation", "Emergency". As a adjective it has meaning "outstanding", "unusual", "not average". It indicates difference from a normal state.

Examples from Explanatory dictionary can be helpful:

「非常に悲しい{かなしい}」- very sad

「非常な才能{さいのう}」- unusual talent

とても just makes following adjective stronger. Often they are interchangeable, but 非常に feels a little bit stronger and as I sad also indicates "unusuality".

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I think the meaning of 非常に is similar to とても. Goo dictionary says 非常に is often used in the case of negative things like 非常に悲しい, 非常に遺憾だ and so on. I feel 非常に is a little stiff, so I don't often use and hear it in casual conversation.

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Since neither of the two answers seemed to address the word 最も, I'll answer.

To me "非常に" and "とても" have very similar meaning, however 非常に sounds a bit more formal. I can see a young person saying とても but have a harder time imagining them saying 非常に.

"最も", in my experience, is usually used to mean "the most", in the sense that it is #1 in some category (like 一番). So ”最も好きな人” would mean "the person I like the most". 非常に would have a very different nuance and not feel as it is indicating the "best" like 最も does.

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