5

I'm not sure if these two have the same meaning, but I don't think they bear the meaning that I know which is the basic なる (to become).

  1. 内なる声と言いますか・・

  2. 彼女よりさらに深遠の、未知なる人物こそが黒幕なのではないかと疑わせるのだ…。

4

This なる is a form of the old copula なり (equivalent to modern だ), and specifically an earlier form of the usage that became the modern な particle used with adjectives. There are a few adjectives that can still take なる instead of な in modern Japanese; this form generally has a literary or poetic-sounding effect.

In the case of the specific two adjectives used here, 内 and 未知, the なる form is actually the only form they can take as な-adjectives in modern Japanese - 内なXX and 未知なXX aren't really used. However, they can be used regularly as noun forms, so 未知なるXX could be rephrased as the equivalent but less poetic-sounding 未知のXX, and 内なるXX similarly as 内のXX (though in the latter case it's perhaps not the most natural expression).

3

It's the 連体形 of the old auxiliary なり. You can replace it by である.

3

なる has several different meanings in Japanese. "To become" is just one of them.

From this dictionary, there are the following meanings of it:

なる

〔断定の助動詞「なり」の連体形〕

① …にある。 「内-世界」

② …という名の。 「顔回{がんかい}-者」

③ …に当たる。…である。 「義兄-人物」

Your sentence should fall into this category.

0

I would interpret “1.内なる声” as “my inner voice,” and 2.” 未知なる人物” as “the person I don’t know yet.” “なる” used in both examples means “which / who is,” like the voice which is (sounds) in my heart, and the person whom I’ve not known / met yet.

We can say:

複雑なる関係 – relationship which is complicated

彼の妻なる女性 – a woman who is said to be his wife.

日本のピカソなる棟方志功 - Munakata Shiko who is regarded as Japanese Picasso

更なる投資 – further investment

All different from another usage of ….になる、meaning to become.

"ABC なる xyz" is a pretty common usage, and not an old locution.

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