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I was reading something which is supposed to mean "Why is it moving?". I would translate it as なんで動いているか? but it actually says なんで動いてんだ?

What's the difference between them? I think I cannot capture that nuance.

I think that 動いている it's something that it's moving at this time whereas 動いてんだ sounds more like I'm stating that it's moving, but I find the lack of tense disturbing (maybe it's a very strong statement implying surprise).

Another question: Could I even say なんで動いてんだった? meaning "why was it moving?" instead of なんで動いていたか?

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~てんだ is just a spoken contraction of ~ている の だ, so you have your continuous tense, and also a のだ, which is sort of an exclamation mark added to the question.

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