I'm aware that the ~たい form of a verb indicates wanting to do something, though - until recently - I hadn't thought about how I could say that I didn't want to do something.
A quick internet search lead me to this page of Tae Kim's guide, with the following example:
(I) don't want to watch (a) scary movie.
I also came across another site, which mentions past-tense variants for both the positive (~たい) and negative (~くない) forms:
Any Japanese -tai form verb conjugates just like an -i adjective does, so here is an example with miru (to see):
Present Tense | Present Tense Neg. | Past Tense | Past Tense Neg. mitai | mitakunai | mitakatta | mitakunakatta
You can see those conjugations as "want to," "don't want to," "wanted to," and "didn't want to" in English.
However, I was confused about how, say, 飲む would be made negative - some of the guides I came across were rather vague, and seemed to indicate that I should replace the ~ む with ~くない (or perhaps just the ~u, with ~akunai), giving either 飲くない or 飲まくない. Neither of these seemed correct; I believe that it should actually be 飲んだくない.
My understanding is that I can derive the past/present and positive/negative ~たい variants of a verb as follows:
- Present (Positive): The formal, positive-present conjugation with ~たい instead of ~ます.
- Present (Negative): The plain, positive-past conjugation with ~くない on the end.
- Past: As above, but with ~かった in place of ~い.
Here are some examples, based on the above:
- 飲みます → 飲み(たい) → 飲みた(かった)
- 飲んだ → 飲んだ(くない) → 飲んだくな(かった)
- 黙ります → 黙り(たい) → 黙りた(かった)
- 黙った → 黙った(くない) → 黙ったくな(かった)
- 話します → 話し(たい) → 話した(かった)
- 話した → 話した(くない) → 話したくな(かった)
- 食べます → 食べ(たい) → 食べた(かった)
- 食べた → 食べた(くない) → 食べたくな(かった)
- します → し(たい) → した(かった)
- した → した(くない) → したくな(かった)
- 来ます → 来(たい) → 来た(かった)
- 来た → 来た(くない) → 来たくな(かった)
Do the "rules" above correctly describe how verbs are modified to indicate (not) wanting to do something, in both the past and present tense?
Also: Is adding です afterwards the correct way to make a variant more polite, regardless of whether it is past/present or positive/negative? For example, are 飲みたいです / 飲んだくないです / 飲みたかったです / 飲んだくなかったです all acceptable?