2

For Full context, see here: https://www.docdroid.net/5vuuiCe/img-20170821-0002-new.pdf

The problem is in this sentence (line 1):

「"KARAOKE"は、今では "JUDO" や "TSUNAMI" と並ぶ世界共通語になっている。」

Here's my attempt at translation: "'Karaoke' nowadays is becoming lined up common world language with 'Judo' and 'Tsunami'etc. ."

並ぶ seems to be an attribute to 世界共通語. That's why I think of it as [X = subject] [is becoming = predicative] [lined up common world language = object/copula-object or what it is called in english terminology]. This makes little sense in my opinion, but I can't see another way of linking these elements.

Then there is the thing with と and や. や marks an unfinished list/enumeration. The enumeration can't end with と, since this marks a finished list. と as a marker for quotation doesn't really work here as well, same goes for conditional phrase particle. The only way I can think of is that と marks the relation between KARAOKE and "the unfinished list". So "Karaoke is becoming...with 1,2 etc."

3

"KARAOKE" は、今では "JUDO" や "TSUNAMI" と並ぶ世界共通語になっている。
Karaoke, along with judo and tsunami, has now become an international common word.

This 並ぶ is to rank with, to rival or to match. This と is not quotative, but a particle that can often correspond to English with. Practically, you need to remember which verb takes と. Here are some verbs that take non-quotative と:

  • 彼と別れる to part with him
  • 英語と比べる to compare with English
  • 敵と戦う to fight with enemies
  • 高さで富士山と並ぶ to rank with Mt. Fuji in height
  • 日本語と異なる to differ from Japanese

This ている is not the progressive form, but it refers to a "continuation of state". See: When is Vている the continuation of action and when is it the continuation of state?

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