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I am not talking about consequences, such as in "I can't find my wallet, I must have lost it" in which case I think something like ~に違いない could be used. Rather, I would like to know how to express that something "must be + adj" because of some reason.

Example 1: We must be strong (for example because the times are tough).

Example 2: The transition must be harmonious/peaceful

My guess is that some verb conjugated in the "なければならない" form should be used, with the verb depending on the situation.

My attempts:

Example 1: 強くでいなければならない.

Example 2: 推移は...に行わなければならない.

Which makes me realize I also would like to know what's a good word for "peacefully/harmoniously" in this case. Notice that here I'm thinking of an abstract transition from one state to another such as could be changing a job or habit, rather than a concrete physical transition.

Anyway, I am really not very confident that my attempts make sense (if they are grammatically correct at all) so even though somehow I feel this is probably something quite basic, I'd appreciate some help. Thank you.

  • "harmonious"の訳語と「強く あらねばならない 」を編集(edit)しました。 – mackygoo Aug 15 '17 at 14:59
  • You can say 強靭{きょうじん}であれ to mean 'be strong'. :) It's 名詞+であれ. – karlalou Aug 16 '17 at 0:50
  • @karlalou thanks. I got how it works now.. Now I'm curious to know why it's あれ and not いれ since you would be saying it to a living thing.. but that's a different story. – Tommy Aug 16 '17 at 0:52
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    The imperative form of いる is いろ, but this sounds more rough than あれ. あれ sounds like a teaching. I don't know why.. – karlalou Aug 16 '17 at 0:58
  • @karlalou yeah in this case it was just a typo in my side, I was thinking いろ but somehow I wrote いれ. – Tommy Aug 16 '17 at 1:06
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I would like to know how to express that something "must be + adj" because of some reason.
Example 1: We must be strong (for example because the times are tough).
Example 2: The transition must be harmonious/peaceful

My guess is that some verb conjugated in the "なければならない" form should be used, with the verb depending on the situation.

Yes, we usually translate 'must' in that sense as なければならない. You can also say なくてはいけない as less formal version, or for a little more colloquial version なくては駄目{だめ}だ, and we also say in everyday conversation しないといけない, しなきゃいけない, しなくちゃダメだ (might sound like chiding), しなくちゃ, しなきゃ, and etc. あらねばならない sounds a little too eloquent or splendid though, this is good as well.

Example 1: 強くでいなければならない.

It could be 強くなければならない, 強くなければいけない, 強くなくてはいけない, 強くなくてはダメだ, and etc.

Example 2: 推移は...に行わなければならない.
I also would like to know what's a good word for "peacefully/harmoniously" in this case. Notice that here I'm thinking of an abstract transition from one state to another such as could be changing a job or habit, rather than a concrete physical transition.

推移{すいい} is used for such as changes in statistical numbers or something that we don't control over or that happens as the result of our efforts. As already answered, 移行{いこう} or maybe 切り{きり}替え{かえ} would also work especially if the context is something like 'habit', and 平和裏{へいわり} is the first one that comes to me as well, and 平和的{へいわてき}に or 穏便{おんびん}に seem to be the literal translations of harmonious/peaceful.

Dependng on the context, you might want to say 調和的{ちょうわてき}に, 調和を図{はか}りながら, 釣{つ}り合い{あい}を取{と}りながら. It could be 穏{おだ}やかに or 緩やかに{ゆるやかに} for 'habit' like in change in diet or lifestyle; 食生活{しょくせいかつ}の切り替えは穏やかに なされるべき/なすべき/するべき です.

  • Thanks for the answer. In example 1 when you say "it could be ..." do you mean my attempt is wrong (for example because I used で) or you mean "it could ALSO be..." and you are just providing more options? – Tommy Aug 15 '17 at 23:52
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    Ah, I can't grammatically see how you came to put でい in it, but I mean that we never say 強くでい~. – karlalou Aug 16 '17 at 0:19
  • Thanks. Yeah I don't know I was just trying as I wasn't really sure. So by the way, how would you say something like "be strong!" (such as in difficult times)? As a sort of order. – Tommy Aug 16 '17 at 0:22
  • We would say しっかり(していなさい)/しっかりね or maybe 頑張(がんば)ってね/がんばれ to encourage someone in hardship. – karlalou Aug 16 '17 at 0:27
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    We would write on a 色紙{しきし}, 強くあれ、正直であれ、親切であれ as a teaching. – karlalou Aug 16 '17 at 0:39
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I would think your understanding of grammar is correct.

I'd translate Example 2:

The transition must be harmonious/peaceful.

移行は(穏便に/平和的に)進めなければならない。

推移 is more commonly used as continuous change such as

There are no drastic fluctuations in that transition.

その推移には大幅な変動はない。 - Weblio Email例文集

Transition of world major stock price indices

世界の主要な株価指数の推移 - 経済産業省

移行 is used as:

a sudden transition from autocracy to democracy.

独裁制から民主制への急激な移行. - 研究社 新英和中辞典

Hope it helps.

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Example 1: We must be strong (for example because the times are tough).
Example 2: The transition must be harmonious/peaceful

Example 1: You: 強くでいなければならない. Me: 我々は強くあらねばならない。
Example 2: You: 推移は...に行わなければならない. Me: 移行は円滑{えんかつ}に/平和裏{へいわり}に行われなければならない。

注釈

  • 「平和裏な移行」、あるいは「平和裏に移行する」は transition と peaceful が併存するような場合のほぼ set phrase です。
  • EDIT jisho.orgで"harmonious"を調べました。「円滑{えんかつ}に」が「平和裏に」と同程度の重みのある表現です。
    OPの質問にはありませんが、このような時によく使われる表現に「粛々{しゅくしゅく}と~する」というのがあります。菅内閣官房長官(Chif Cabinet Secretary Suga)が記者会見でよく使う表現です。
    It is important for us to calmly proceed with preparations and implement the shift according to schedule. (日本語:決まっているスケジュールに沿って、粛々と準備をし、粛々と実施に移していくということが重要であると思っております。)
  • EDIT 「強くあらねばならない」=「強くある(to be strong)」+「ねばならない」
    As for 「ねばならない」, visit jisho.org with ねばならない, then, jisho.org tells you なければならない means "have to do; must; should; ought to", and ねばならない is the other form of なければならない. ​
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    我々は強くあらねばならない. Could you please explain the あらねば part? I do not recognize that form. – G-Cam Aug 15 '17 at 14:03
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    @G-Cam: 強く**ある**(to be strong)+ねばならない(visit jisho.org with ねばならない). Then, jisho.org tells you なければならない means "have to do; must; should; ought to", and ねばならない is the other form of なければならない ​ – mackygoo Aug 15 '17 at 14:31
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I think you can also use 〜{しか・ほか}ない ("there's nothing but 〜", "there's no alternative besides 〜") for this.

  • 強くいるしかない → There's nothing (else) we can do but be strong → We must be strong
  • 移行は穏便に行う・進めるほかない → There's no alternative besides (a) peaceful transition → The transition must be peaceful

However, this gives the statement a more objective feel to it (at least to me).

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