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借りてきた猫 was translated as a borrowed cat. In that case, why 借りてきた is used instead of just 借りた猫? What additional meaning does it want to imply?

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Good question! I had to think of the reason for a while.

I think きた of 借りてきた猫 emphasizes the fact that the cat has come "here" which is different from where it used to belong. The cat is now quite a stranger "here." It doesn't know what to do, and has to keep quiet and still.

借りた猫=a borrowed cat

借りて来た猫=a borrowed and coming to a new place cat

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