what are they (な、ね) called?
They are called sentence-ending particles. However, な can also come along with what are called な adjective.
how to apply them to another word? i mean are they just for noun or adjective? i think not every noun can be attached with them, correct?
Typically they will add on to the end of the sentence, except for な which can also be used with certain adjectives.
Here are some examples.
For な、you can:
- Indicate emotion. Mostly used by men.
(な, in this usage, is often lengthened to なあ）
あの人はすばらしいな。That person is really great [something]!
- Ask for another person's agreement. Used by men.
あの車は新車だよな。That's a new car, right?/That's a new car, I bet.
- Soften the effect of an assertion.
この映画は良くなかったな。This movie just wasn't very good.
- Soften a command or request (first example, a women speaking with typical くださいな pattern; second example, a man.)
成田まで行ってくださいな。Narita [Airport], please [if you please].
明日必ず来いな。Be sure to come tomorrow.
- Indicate a prohibition. Used by men.
絶対にあいつに会うな。Stay away from that bum, you hear./Keep clear of that guy.
For ね、you can:
Note: ね is sometimes pronounced ねえ。
- Indicates emotion or feelings of admiration.
きれいな花ねえ。What a pretty flower!
- Indicates agreement with the other person.
本当にそうですね。Yes, that's quite true./That's so true.
- Softens a request.
必ず手紙を下さいね。Be sure to write [me a letter].
- Indicates a request for confirmation.
あの本、持って来て下さったでしょうね。You brought me that book, didn't you [as I asked you to]?/ I suppose you brought that book for me.
- Indicates a mild assertion of, or variance in, opinion.
そうですかね。Oh, is that so?/ I wonder. /You think so?
- Indicates a mild assertion.
私は北海道の方が寒いと思うんですけどね。I would think that Hokkaido is cooler.
For よ, you can:
- Urge a course of action.
Let's take a break about here, guys.
We've already walked quite a bit.
- Indicate a request (Although other particles can do this too)
私の家にも来てくださいよ。Come to my house, too.
- Indicates a statement of certainty.
今日は金曜日ですよ。Today is Friday, you know. (Stated, for example, after someone has claimed otherwise.)
- Indicates scolding or contempt.
あの人は仕事ができないわよ。He just can't do the work!