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The translation I was given for this sentence was: "The house trembled in the earthquake," but I'm at a loss for how 「ぐらぐら」and 「揺れる」are connected by 「と」.

My best guess would be that 「と」functions similarly to "with" to connect the adverb to the verb? In other words, "The house shook uneasily," or something to that effect?

Thank you for your insight!

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How is 「と」used in the sentence: 「地震で家がぐらぐらと揺れた。」

ぐらぐら alone works as an adverb, but we sometimes add と to it for style: そよそよ(と)そよぐ風、すやすや(と)眠る子ねこ、ばたばた(と)走りまわる
It doesn't really change anything, but seems to add slight explanatory sense that it feels like more care has been taken.

My best guess would be that 「と」functions similarly to "with" to connect the adverb to the verb? In other words, "The house shook uneasily," or something to that effect?

This usage of is to describe something, what or how something is; 「~なんです」と言った。
It indicates the content of a quotation or thought or idea or the like, and
makes an adverb phrase or clause; it's always followed by a verb: という/と言う、と思って、頑{がん}として言うことを聞かない

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