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Both of these words can be used to mean 'new', but one is loaned from English. I recall hearing somewhere that ニュー became a loanword because it has a slightly different meaning to 新しい, but what exactly is this difference?

The first thought that would come to mind for me would be that ニュー is slightly more casual-sounding, but that doesn't seem to me to be much of a reason as to why it'd become a loanword.

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Difference in usage of 新しい and ニュー
The first thought that would come to mind for me would be that ニュー is slightly more casual-sounding, but that doesn't seem to me to be much of a reason as to why it'd become a loanword.

I think it's about the limited usage. デジタル大辞泉 has an entry for ニュー, and the use of おニューの(服 or etc.) was already old in my childhood, but I think most of us don't really consider ニュー as part of Japanese, comparing to ニュース that has very much become part of Japanese. I think it's just, as the dictionary page also says (#2), it's also used to modify a katakana word.

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