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I've occasionally seen native speakers of Japanese refer to a "crush" rather than a "crash" in English-language bug reports.

Is "クラッシュ" the main way of transcribing into katakana not only the English word "crash", but also to the English word "crush"?

A search of jisho.org mentions クラッシュシンドローム, which is mentioned on 挫滅症候群, but I don't know if it's an abnormal way of converting "crush" to katakana.

  • 4
    clash も「クラッシュ」って言ってるかも・・ – Chocolate Jul 23 '17 at 12:46
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日本語

「クラッシュ」と英語の「crash」と「crush」に関するOPの質問を先に回答し、そののちに「clash」を含めた「clash, crash, crush」と「クラッシュ」の関係を更に詳しく考えます。

I've occasionally seen native speakers of Japanese refer to a "crush" rather than a "crash" in English-language bug reports. Is "クラッシュ" the main way of transcribing into katakana not only the English word "crash", but also to the English word "crush"?

コンピュータの「バグ報告 bug reports」とありますので、この「クラッシュ」はコンピュータの「クラッシュ crash」、すなわち "to shut down because of a malfunction of hardware or software" を指しているものと思われます。
一方、日本人が「クラッシュ」と言うと、のちに詳しく述べますが、基本的に「衝突/衝突する collision/to collide」を指すので、この解釈は英単語ではcrashに相当しますが、コンピュータのクラッシュとは無関係だと思っていました。crushは、「握{にぎ}り潰{つぶ}す」あるいは「押{お}し潰{つぶ}す/圧{お}し潰す」という意味ですので、日本人はこれまで「クラッシュ」とcrushとは無関係だと思ってきました。ところが、近頃ですが、「アイスクラッシュ crushed ice」や「アイスクラッシャー ice crusher」という単語が日本の食生活の中に登場してきました。これは、「細かく砕かれた氷」あるいはそのための調理器具です。日本人の感覚では、コンピュータが「クラッシュする」とは、「衝突」ではなく、コンピュータが砕氷された氷や、握り潰された卵か果物のようにグチャグチャになる様子と似ております。従ってOPの周りの人が、コンピュータのcrashをcrushと勘違いして使っているものと思われます。

A search of jisho.org mentions クラッシュシンドローム, which is mentioned on 挫滅症候群, but I don't know if it's an abnormal way of converting "crush" to katakana.

「クラッシュシンドローム」も「挫滅症状群」も私は初めて聞いた言葉ですが、その意味を調べると Crush injury is compression of extremities or other parts of the body that causes muscle swelling and/or neurological disturbances in the affected areas of the body, while crush syndrome is localized crush injury with systemic manifestations.とあります。
"crush"を「握{にぎ}り潰{つぶ}す」あるいは「押{お}し潰{つぶ}す/圧{お}し潰す」という意味で理解している日本人には、crush syndromeの意味から判断して、crush syndromeを「クラッシュシンドローム」と書き表しても問題ないと思います。

「クラッシュ」を考える場合には、日本人泣かせの「clash, crash, crush」の3つを同時に考える必要があります。

これまでの知識に加え、今回新たに、この記事この記事を参考にして、回答します。

  • 3つの英単語とも日本語では「クラッシュ」と発音します。
  • 英語の「clash, crash, crush」は共通的に「ガチャ」という音の擬音語として生まれているように、いずれも音が伴うようですが、日本語のクラッシュは「衝突」という意味を基本としており、必ずしも音が伴う必要はありません。
  • 3つの英単語の意味や用例を調べますと、「衝突」を基本とする「クラッシュ」はclashとcrashに対応しています。但し、clashの意味の一部になっている単純に音がでるシンバル(cymbales)の音には対応していません。その理由として日本語の「クラッシュ」は何らかの損傷が起きるあるいは双方が対立するなど、何か問題が起きる「衝突」に使われますが、問題が起きない衝突(シンバルを演奏した時に音がでるような行為)には使われないようです。
  • 「クラッシュ」がclashとcrashに対応しているもう一つの理由は、「クラッシュ」と「clashとcrash」はいずれも2つのものが対象となる現象ですが、crushは何かを「押し潰{つぶ}す/圧{お}し潰{つぶ}す」ように対象が1つであることにも依ります。
  • 「押し潰す/圧し潰す」という意味が強いcrushは日本語のクラッシュに対応していないと今まで考えていました。しかし、近年アイスクラッシャー(ice crusher)という調理器具(?)が日本にも入って来て、かつ、日本製の製品も出回ってきましたので、「握り潰し」や「圧し潰し/押し潰し」とやや違う「破砕」「粉砕」に近い意味のcrushに対応する意味がクラッシュに加わってきました。
  • 「clash, crash, crush」の互いの相違は更に、次のようなところにもあると判断しております。clashは衝突する(あるいは対立する)けれど、対象物が壊れない。crashとcrushは対象物が壊れるが、crashが中身に及ぶことはあったも基本的に表面的な(あるいは外的な)壊れであるのに対して、clushは必ず中身が出るような壊れ方を前提とする。壊れ方の違いで判断すると、クラッシュはやはりclashとcrashに近いと思われます。 私は、発音ではなく、壊れ方の違いで「clash, crash, crush」を区別しております。clashはlなので対立、衝突するが「バー」があるので、壊れない。crashは最も標準的で衝突して壊れる。crushのuは破れているので壊れると中身が表に出る。

私の解釈等に違いがあればどうぞご指摘ください。 また、類似点・相違点等を図で示しましたのでご覧ください。

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English

I've occasionally seen native speakers of Japanese refer to a "crush" rather than a "crash" in English-language bug reports. Is "クラッシュ" the main way of transcribing into katakana not only the English word "crash", but also to the English word "crush"?

Partly yes.

Since there is a phrase "bug reports", it seems to refer a "crash" of a computer that is defined as "to shut down because of malfunction of hardware or software". We also use "クラッシュ/クラッシュする" in Japanese like "パソコン死んだ!クラッシュしたよ My computer does not work. It crashed.
"On the other hand, basically, "クラッシュ/クラッシュする" refers to "collision / to collide" in Japanese, so this understanding seems to be equivalent to a word "crash" in English and it has been thought unrelated to a computer "crash".
And more, "to crush" means, I think, "to press, compress or squeeze something to collapse", so we think "to crush" is irrelevant to "クラッシュ/クラッシュする".
However, recently, the word "アイスクラッシュ crushed ice" and "アイスクラッシャー ice crusher" have appeared in a Japanese kitchen. These words mean "finely crushed ice" and "cooking utensils for that". In the sense of the Japanese, the computer "クラッシュ crashing" is not like "衝突 collision", but it is similar to the state how a computer software becomes ugly like crushed ice, or squeezed eggs or fruits. Therefore it seems that people around OP misunderstand a computer "crash" as "crush", and misuse the word.

A search of jisho.org mentions クラッシュシンドローム, which is mentioned on 挫滅症候群, but I don't know if it's an abnormal way of converting "crush" to katakana.

It's a normal way.

"クラッシュシンドローム crush syndrome" and "挫滅症状群" are the words I heard for the first time, so I looked them up in a dictionary and I got the meaning as "Crush injury is compression of extremities or other parts of the body that causes muscle swelling and/or neurological disturbances in the affected areas of the body, while crush syndrome is localized crush injury with systemic manifestations."

For Japanese who understand "crush" as the meaning of "to squeeze or press something to collapse", judging from the meaning of crush syndrome, I think it is no problem to write it as "クラッシュシンドローム" for "crush syndrome".


Taking this opportunity to answer OP's question, I examined the meaning of "クラッシュ/クラッシュする" and "crash, crush and also clash" which have been difficult to distinguish for me. Because these three words are similar in meaning, spelling and pronunciation, they seem also difficult for Japanese people to distinguish clearly.

  • Those who do not mind pronunciation of English or who cannot pronounce English well would pronounce the three English words in almost the same way as the sound similar to a Japanese word "クラッシュ".
    There are two reasons for this.
    At first, many Japanese cannot distinguish "a" sound in crash from "u" sound in crush well by pronunciation, and also not a few Japanese cannot pronounce "r" and "l" sounds well, therefore all three words "clash, crash and crush" are pronounced close to a Japanese word "クラッシュ".
    Secondly, as for the pronunciation of "クラッシュ" in Japanese, クラ-sound in クラッシュ is not "kura" but it tends to be pronounced as "kra" with omitting "u" sound. Next, since the accent is placed on "ラ", the last "シュ" is pronounced relatively lightly, so it is pronounced with the sound close to "sh" instead of "shu" with omitting the last sound "u". As the result, the Japanese word of "クラッシュ" is pronounced as if English words clash, crash and crash were all mixed.

  • Because the English words with "clash, crash and crush" were commonly born as onomatopoeic words, some kind of sound is accompanied when each of these verbs actually functions, while "クラッシュ" in Japanese is a noun based on the meaning of "衝突 collision" or "対立 conflict", so it isn't considered necessarily accompanied by sound.

  • Examining the meanings and examples of three English words, "クラッシュ" based on "衝突 collision" corresponds to "clash" and "crash". However, it does not correspond to clashing cymbals which is a part of the meaning of "clash". The reason for this is that "クラッシュ" in Japanese is used for "衝突 collision or 対立 conflict" when or where something inconvenient happens, namely some kind of damage or conflict between the two parties occurs, but the action of making sounds by striking cymbals against each other does not seem to cause inconvenience.

  • Another reason that "クラッシュ" corresponds to "clash" and "crash", not to "crush", is that both "clash" and "crash" are expressed as "A and B clash with each other" or "A and B crash with each other", so that the number of objects causing the phenomenon is two, but "crush" also depends on the fact that there is only one object to be crushed.

  • We also find that the differences between "clash, crash and crush" lie also in the following points. "To clash" describes to collide or to conflict, but the object does not break by this action. On the other hand, "to crash" and "to crush" destroy objects, although "to crash" is basically a superficial or external breakage even if the impact of collision affects internally, whereas "to crush" is assumed to destroy objects completely. Judging from the difference in the way of giving damage to the object, クラッシュ that is supposed to mean mainly "to collide" is far from "to crush".

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