1

わたしにはわたしとしての考えがあります。

I have my own way of thinking.

I knew に has some basic usage in:

  1. Location of Existence
  2. Direction and Destination
  3. Destination
  4. Result of Change
  5. Object of Verb
  6. Source
  7. Specific Time
  8. Notion of Per

But I couldn't figure out the use of "に" in this sentence.

Can the literal translation of the above phrase be: "To me, I have my own way of thinking"?

1
3

わたしはわたしとしての考えがあります。

The に is closest to #1 on your list: Location of existence.

According to 明鏡国語辞典:

に〘格助詞〙
① (1) ㋐ 存在の場所や所有する者を表す 。「机の上に本がある」「母は家にいる」「彼は子供が3人いる」「彼女は責任感が欠けている」

The に indicates the location of existence or the possessor/owner of something.

So your sentence would literally translate to: "In me, my own idea exists." ⇒ "I have my own idea."

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