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A: 結婚したいけど、僕はお金がないから...
B: お金なんか要らない。あなたといっしょにいるだけでいいの。

They are printed in bold. I dont really have problems understanding the sentence. But I wouldn't know what nuances are brought in by the elements in question.

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The first に just indicates existence/possession in this case. I think that grammatically this kind of construction is called something like passive periphrastic (EDIT: no it's not. See comments). For example, literally you would translate it as "to me is (not) money", which means of course "I don't have money".

Consider also this simple example:

私には彼女がいます。

Which means obviously means "I have a girlfriend" although literally it would be "To me is a girlfriend".

So, to recap, you can think of に as usual as a "pointer". And do you remember the general rule that when indicating existence with ある・いる these verbs want the particle に? It's the same thing here as you are basically stating that "there is (not) money", where? "to you".

Regarding わ, it is just something similar to よ that as you knows adds emphasis to the sentence. The difference is that わ if I'm not wrong is used mostly by females. Also, I think it is quite used in Kansai dialect.

  • would be wrong to say 僕はお金がない? – Felipe Oliveira Jul 5 '17 at 14:41
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    "passive periphrastic" refers to something else. If anything this is more akin to dative constructions in Latin and German. Periphrasis refers to when grammatical meaning is created using individual words. This is particularly apparent in highly inflected languages where a grammatical form already exists but an alternative circumlocution is available. In Japanese, a good example would be the potential: 食べられる vs 食べることができる (periphrastically constructed). – A.Ellett Jul 5 '17 at 16:43
  • @A.Ellett thanks for the comment, that's why I said I wasn't sure. I actually remembered something like that from the days I studied Latin at school but it seems I remembered wrong. I will update that. – Tommy Jul 5 '17 at 23:24
  • @FelipeOliveira That sounds ok, I think Japanese would use it in regular conversations to say "I don't have money". However, I am wondering if that is technically grammatically wrong as いる・ある (as far as I know) always require the particle に hence it should be 私にお金がない. The interesting thing is that I asked a Japanese that said that with は however it sounds more natural while the one with に sounds weird. Anyway she wouldn't be sure which would be grammatically correct.. Maybe I should open a new question.. – Tommy Jul 6 '17 at 3:02
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    @Tommy The problem is not に itself but 私にお金がない lacking topic parts. 私がお金がない and 私にお金がない change into 私はお金がない and 私にはお金がない respectively when they are topicalized. (Incidentally, you mixed two different わs and the explanation went misleading.) – user4092 Jul 6 '17 at 6:21

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