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調理用のアルミボウルを用いて、より半球に近づけるためにゴム製ハンマーでひたすらたたき続けた。

Using aluminum foil, (より?) to make it hemispherical, a rubber hammer was repeatedly tapped.

If not for comparison, what is the purpose of より?

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It's an aluminium bowl (アルミボウル) rather than aluminium foil (アルミホイル).

Having said that, the usual pattern for より is "AよりB[のほう]" - "B more than A", "B rather than A". But より can simply stand as an adverb before an い-adjective or a verb to make a comparative, as in より大きい, "bigger". That's what's going on here: より is modifying 近づける, "cause to approach". より近づける means "cause to approach more", "bring nearer". 半球 is the indirect object. So this part of the sentence means "Used a rubber hammer to bring it nearer to a hemisphere", "went on beating it with a rubber hammer to make it more hemispherical in form".

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