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協力してください。
協力してください。
Please cooperate with me.

Is there any difference in meaning/usage/nuance when choosing と or に to go with the verb 協力する?

If I had to guess maybe I'd say that 私協力してください would mean "please let's work equally together". Whereas 私協力してください would be "please give your cooperation to me". So と would sound a bit more gentle, maybe?

A google search shows that に is more common but I suspect that might be because of adverbs ending in に.

How about this sentence:

世界の国が行う宇宙の調査に協力します

Does this read more like "cooperate with" or "contribute to"? Can I replace に with と here?

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    I don't know about 私と vs 私に. Personally, 私と協力してください sounds better to me. But 世界の国が行う宇宙の調査に協力します is different and there's no ambiguity: "We are participating in the investigations of the universe that are being conducted by the nations of the world" – A.Ellett Jul 2 '17 at 18:15
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The difference between 私と協力してください and 私に協力してください is small, and they are usually interchangeable. While the latter is simple "please help me", the former does sound more like "let's do it together with me", although saying "equally" would be a bit too much.

In 世界の国が行う宇宙の調査に協力します, you cannot replace this に with と, because you won't do something together with the 調査 itself.

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